This applet created by prof Hwang, Modified layout by Ahmed.
Original applet [url=]Synchrotron[/url]

A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator in which the magnetic field (to turn the particles so they circulate) and the electric field (to accelerate the particles) are carefully synchronised with the travelling particle beam.

Do you know how to determine the magnetic field strength so that it will bent the charged particles into another segment?
The charged are accelerated between stright segment by magnetic field.
The charged particle will loss energy while traveling in vacuum chamber and during bending (it will emit radiation,too)
Acceleration of charged particle product electromagnetic wave: i.e. light.
Do you know how to synchronised the electric field with the magnetic field?

The charged loss energy when being bent by magnetic field, so another electric field are required to re-fill the energy for charge particle.
The electric field can be generate with AC voltage source which mean different charged particle will be accelerated with different potential (i.e. gain different energy).
The problem is how to find a suitable setting so that different charged particle will be focus (instead spread out ) during operation.

The following is a simulation for a synchrotron.
This simulation will help you to study how to find solution and explain why it can be done that way.

The default setting is the stable one.
Initially, the order of those particles are 4,3,2,1,0
It will changed to other sequences during the simulatrion.
However, those particles will not be focus in a region(separation between particles will increase) if you adjust cm to other position (cm>pi/2) .

Slider bar for b is to adjust energy loss due to collision with particles in the vacuum chamber.
Slider bar for Ecst is to adjust the maximum voltage of the power supply (generate E field to accelerate particle when charged particles is bent by magnetic field).

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