If you use the following at evolution page:

dvx/dt = f/m*Math.cos(cta+pi/2)

dvy/dt = f/m*Math.sin(cta+pi/2)

But the above equations need "cta" value during the evolution page.

If you use cta at constraint page, the "cta" will be at t-dt;

You will find much larger calculation error.

It has something to do with how the evolution were done numerically.

The program need to calculate several values between t to t+dt to know how to changed variables to next time step with high preission (You can check out [u]Runge-Kutta's 4-th order method[/u] if you are interested in how it was done).

If you do not like xid;

You can also define two functions:

public double calfx(double vx,double vy){

cta=Math.atan2(vy,vx);

return f*Math.cos(cta+pi/2);

else return f*Math.sin(cta+pi/2);

}

public double calfy(double vx,double vy){

cta=Math.atan2(vy,vx);

return f*Math.sin(cta+pi/2);

}

combined with

dvx/dt = (fx=calfx(vx,vy)/m);

dvy/dt = ( fy=calfy(vx,vy)/m);

[/quote]

Thanks, Hwang.